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Publication Date

Fall 2018

Degree Type

Thesis - Campus Access Only

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Peggy Plato


inspiratory impedance threshold device

Subject Areas



The inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) was designed to increase negative intrathoracic pressure and, thus, improve the body’s natural ability to deliver and return blood to the heart. Five ice hockey athletes participated in this study because of the high physiological demands associated with the sport, the more predictable nature of their shifts, and the inactive rest between shifts. The participants skated a course, the Peterson On-Ice Repeated Sprint Test, eight times (shifts) with 90 s recovery between each shift. During the recovery periods, participants breathed with or without the ITD. The test conditions were randomized and counterbalanced with 48 hr between test conditions. Performance, measured as time to skate the course, was comparable between conditions (p = .21); however, lactate measured after the 8th shift was lower, although not statistically significant, during the ITD condition compared to the control (10.9 ± 1.5 mM and 14.0 ± 0.4 mM, respectively, t(4) = -2.591, p = .06). Athletes rated their exertion lower when using the ITD during recovery (F(8, 32) = 4.199, p < 0.01). Thus, use of the ITD positively affected lactate and perceived exertion when performing repeated ice hockey shifts using the Peterson Repeated Sprint Test. Future research using the ITD technology may help to better characterize its effects on performance as well as the physiological and perceptual responses associated with its use during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise.