Publication Date

Spring 2020

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




Joseph J. Pesek


Aqueous Normal Phase, Chromatography, HPLC, Silica Hydride, Stationary Phase, Type C silica

Subject Areas

Analytical chemistry; Chemistry


With many modern chromatographic advancements, silica hydride based columns

(also known commercially as Type-C) represent yet another evolutionary step in

stationary phase development. Type-C silica hydride columns have the ability to retain

both polar and nonpolar analytes and have the ability to behave in either RP or ANP

modes of separation depending on mobile phase composition. A consequence of this

increased stability is that Type-C columns can be used over a wide range of mobile phase

compositions, from purely aqueous to purely nonpolar organic solvents, and any

combination of the two. While the retention behavior of Type-C columns depends highly

on the mobile phase environment, it can also be influenced by the organic moiety

attached to the surface. This project encompasses the evaluation of a silica hydride-based

column with amide functionalities to be used in high performance liquid chromatography.

A series of separations were performed using reference standards of varying analyte

sizes, functionalities, and polarities. This project assesses the specific column selectivity

and identifies classes of compounds which show high potential for effective retention,

resolution, and efficiency when using amide functionalized silica hydride columns for RP

and ANP separations.