Publication Date

Spring 2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Food Science and Packaging


John Gieng

Subject Areas

Food science


Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most common cause of mortality in the world affecting people from all backgrounds. There is abundant evidence supporting diet affecting the risk for CVD. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is inversely related to CVD risk factors, likely due to their content of phenolic compounds. Although stone fruits contain high quantities of phenolic compounds, it remains unclear if their intake is associated with CVD risk. In this study, data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018 were used to estimate the consumption level of stone fruits and whether it was associated with CVD biomarkers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein across 3 levels of consumption (0, <1, >1 serving/day). Other variables assessed included education, poverty index, alcohol consumption, sedentary activity, smoking, and diet. Data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Complex Samples software to account for weighting. A total of 2,110 subjects were included in the analysis. No associations between stone fruits consumption level and the CVD biomarkers were observed (all p>0.05). However, some secondary variables were associated: education (p<0.001), poverty index (p=0.013), alcohol consumption (p=0.004), sedentary activity (p<0.001), smoking (p=0.001), and fiber intake (p=0.002). More research on a larger sample using individual stone fruits and accounting for confounding factors are needed to determine if there is an association between their consumption and CVD risk.