Publication Date

Fall 2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition, Food Science and Packaging


John Gieng

Subject Areas



Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is prevalent in the United States (US) population andconcerns lie in related chronic diseases and financial burdens. To mitigate MetS, modifying the diet is a possible solution. Yogurt is known for its nutrient density and is a possible health food. The growing interests in yogurt and the growing concerns for MetS are met with the gap of unraveling the yogurt consumption status and MetS prevalence in the US. We evaluated the association between yogurt consumption and MetS using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 and Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies data. The study population included 1,428 non-pregnant adults aged 18 or more with complete information on demographic and MetS-related variables. Of the participants, 20.0% consumed yogurt (mean intake of 31.2 g/day) and 33.3% had MetS. Yogurt consumers were older (p=0.006), majority female (p<0.001), more educated (p<0.001), smoked less (p<0.001), had lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p=0.032) and male high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was higher (p=0.019). There was an inverse association in males between yogurt intake status and MetS (OR: 0.450; 95% CI: 0.230-0.880) but not in females or the total population. This study was the first to include mixed foods from a US population in the analysis. Future studies can incorporate more NHANES cycle years and analyze different intake levels to determine possible impacts on MetS.