Race Ethnicity and Education
Although in-school suspensions may be viewed as less severe than out-of-school suspensions, both discipline consequences limit students’ access to learning opportunities and are negatively associated with a range of educational outcomes. Moreover, if sending students out of class perpetuates the same racial disparities as sending them home, this practice does not realize the equity goals of discipline reforms over the last decade. Our study draws on Critical Race Theory and QuantCrit to understand racial discipline gaps across in-school and out-of-school suspensions using data from students and schools in one large district. Results of multilevel regression models indicate similar racial disparities in both suspension types, suggesting neither approach is equitable. These findings illustrate the limits of race-neutral policies in mitigating exclusionary discipline gaps. Addressing the thorny issues that contribute to racial disparities will likely require greater resources for high quality implementation of school-wide culture change initiatives that are explicitly anti-racist.
Critical Race Theory, exclusionary, Quantcrit, racial disparities, school discipline, Suspension
Yolanda Anyon, Kathryn Wiley, Ceema Samimi, and Miguel Trujillo. "Sent out or sent home: understanding racial disparities across suspension types from critical race theory and quantcrit perspectives" Race Ethnicity and Education (2021). https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2021.2019000