Drawing on social identity theory and focus theory of norms, this study investigated differences in how destination residents respond to deviant behaviors by other residents—members of their in-group—and similar behavior by tourists, who they see as the out-group. We proposed and tested a conceptual model of the transition between in-group favoritism and the black sheep effect under the moderating effect of norm strength. A mixed-method approach, including a secondary data study and three scenario-based experiments, was applied. Findings of this study revealed that focal residents showed in-group favoritism for other residents' deviant behavior compared with tourists. The contagion effect of deviant behavior was stronger among in-groups than out-groups. However, with respect to behaviors about which norms are tight, the black sheep effect comes into play, as focal residents hold a higher desire to punish in-groups’ deviant behavior than the out-group. This study has theoretical and practical implications for destination marketing organizations.
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Black sheep effect, Desire to punish, Desire to tolerate, Destination resident, Deviant behavior, In-group favoritism
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.
Hospitality, Tourism, and Event Management
Lujun Su, Huixuan Chen, Yinghua Huang, and Xiuqiong Chen. "In-group favoritism or black sheep effect? The moderating role of norm strength on destination residents’ responses towards deviant behaviors" Tourism Management (2023). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2023.104773