Publication Date


Document Type


Publication Title

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare





A key feature of human rights in health is access to safe, effective and affordable medicines. Pharmacovigilance is advocated for monitoring intended/unintended effects of medicines to assure their safety. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize knowledge about supply chain impediments to safe medicines in developing nations and contribute to future development of research in this field.


This paper conducts a structured literature review based on Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. It aims at profiling supply chain impediments to safe medicines in developing nations by reviewing 46 recent pharmacovigilance-specific papers published between 2005 and 2020.


Analysis of reviewed articles identified criticality of supply chain impediments that affect constituents across pharmaceutical in developing nations, which still struggle to maintain robust national pharmacovigilance systems due to lack of awareness, policy and practices.

Research limitations/implications

Research results can be applied by pharmaceutical industry decision-makers and drug safety professionals in developing nations. Because the review is qualitative in nature, its implication ought to be tested after actual implementation.

Practical implications

This review can help identify underinvestigated impediments and methods to aid in developing new pharmacovigilance knowledge areas in developing nation context.

Social implications

The review uncovers gaps in global health equity dialogue in developing nations. It also recognizes that macrolevel supply chain impediments exist due to unfair disease burden and health inequities in developing nations.


The paper examines supply chain impediments to safe medicines in developing nations with insights for future pharmacovigilance research. Identifying and classifying supply chain impediments through this review is the first step toward creating effective interventions for these impediments to safe medicines.


Developing countries, LMIC, Developing nations, Drug safety, Impediments, Pharmaceutical supply chains, Pharmacovigilance


This author accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact


Global Innovation and Leadership