Journal of Eating Disorders
Purpose: Gender-expansive individuals (i.e., those who identify outside of the binary system of man or woman) are a marginalized group that faces discrimination and have a high burden of mental health problems, but there is a paucity of research on eating disorders in this population. This study aimed to describe the community norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in gender-expansive populations. Methods: The participants were 988 gender-expansive individuals (defined as neither exclusively cisgender nor binary transgender) from The PRIDE study, an existing longitudinal cohort study of health outcomes in sexual and gender minority people. Results: We present the mean scores, standard deviations, and percentile ranks for the Global score and four subscale scores of the EDE-Q in this group as a whole and stratified by sex assigned at birth. Gender-expansive individuals reported any occurrence (≥1/28 days) of dietary restraint (23.0%), objective binge episodes (12.9%), excessive exercise (7.4%), self-induced vomiting (1.4%), or laxative misuse (1.2%). We found no statistically significant differences by sex assigned at birth. Compared to a prior study of transgender men and women, there were no significant differences in eating attitudes or disordered eating behaviors noted between gender-expansive individuals and transgender men. Transgender women reported higher Restraint and Shape Concern subscale scores compared to gender-expansive individuals. Compared to a prior study of presumed cisgender men 18–26 years, our age-matched gender-expansive sample had higher Eating, Weight, and Shape Concern subscales and Global Score, but reported a lower frequency of objective binge episodes and excessive exercise. Compared to a prior study of presumed cisgender women 18–25 years, our age-matched gender-expansive sample had a higher Shape Concern subscale score, a lower Restraint subscale score, and lower frequencies of self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse, and excessive exercise. Conclusions: Gender-expansive individuals reported lower Restraint and Shape Concern scores than transgender women; higher Eating, Weight, and Shape Concern scores than presumed cisgender men; and lower Restraint but higher Shape Concern scores than presumed cisgender women. These norms can help clinicians in treating this population and interpreting the EDE-Q scores of their gender-expansive patients.
National Institutes of Health
Disordered eating, Eating disorder, Gender fluid, Gender-expansive, Genderqueer, Non-binary
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Jason M. Nagata, Emilio J. Compte, Chloe J. Cattle, Annesa Flentje, Matthew R. Capriotti, Micah E. Lubensky, Stuart B. Murray, Juno Obedin-Maliver, and Mitchell R. Lunn. "Community norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among gender-expansive populations" Journal of Eating Disorders (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40337-020-00352-x