In this study, an extended stress-based forming limit diagram (FLD) for prediction of necking based on the Marciniak and Kucznski (M-K) model is represented and applied in tube hydroforming. The bulge forming of a straight tube is simulated by finite element method and verified with published experimental data. This adaptive simulation technique is based on the ability to detect the onset and growth of defects (e.g., bursting and wrinkling) and to promptly readjust the loading paths. Thus, a suitable load path is determined by applying Adaptive Simulation Method in ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL).
E. Masoumi Khalil Abad, Amir Ghazanfari, and R. Hashemi. "Loading Path Determination for Tube Hydroforming Process of Automotive Component Using APDL" International Journal of Automotive Engineering (2013): 555-563.