Document Type


Publication Date

January 2016


The Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) process is a novel additive manufacturing process for fabricating dense ceramic components from aqueous pastes of high solids loading. In this study, 3 mol% Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) parts were fabricated using the CODE process. The parts were then dried in a humidity controlled environmental chamber and sintered under atmospheric pressure. Mechanical properties of the sintered parts were examined using ASTM standard test techniques, including density, Young’s modulus, flexural strength, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness. The microstructure was analyzed, and grain size was measured using scanning electron microscopy. The results compared with those from Direct Inkjet Printing, Selective Laser Sintering, and other extrusion-based processes indicated that zirconia parts produced by CODE exhibit superior mechanical properties among the additive manufacturing processes. Several example parts were produced to demonstrate CODE’s capability for fabricating geometrically complex ceramic parts.


This paper was published in Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016: Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference. It is included here with permission of the editor. This paper can also be found online at this link.