Replacing flammable organic electrolytes with aqueous electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) can greatly enhance the safety of next-generation energy storage systems. With the extended electrochemical stability window of electrolytes, 'water-in-salt' (WIS) electrolytes containing LIB presented significant performance improvements. However, the solubility limits of lithium salts in water restrain the extent of kinetic protection offered by the high salt concentration. Here, we report design strategies of anode structure to improve the cycle life of LIB with WIS electrolytes. We introduced partially graphitic protective carbon layers on anode particles using a versatile coating method. This protective layer not only improved charge transfer kinetics but also minimized the exposure of anode surface for water electrolysis. The effectiveness of anode structure developed in this study was exemplified on TiO2 anodes, where cycle performance and coulombic efficiency improved by 11 times and 29% respectively over the base anode material. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Usha Subramanya, Charleston Chua, Victor Gin He Leong, Ryan Robinson, Gwenlyn Cruz Cabiltes, Prakirti Singh, Bonnie Yip, Anuja Bokare, Folarin Erogbogbo, and Dahyun Oh. "Carbon-Based Artificial SEI Layers for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes" RSC Advances (2020): 674-681. doi:https://doi.org/10.1039/C9RA08268A