Journal of Applied Physics
The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.
H. Dong, Santosh KC, A. Azcatl, W. Cabrera, X. Qin, B. Brennan, D. Zhernokletov, K. Cho, and R. Wallace. "In-situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)" Journal of Applied Physics (2013). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4833569