The dependence of the “self cleaning” effect of the substrate oxides on substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 on various chemically treated and native oxide InP (100) substrates is investigated using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The removal of In-oxide is found to be more efficient at higher ALD temperatures. The P oxidation states on native oxide and acid etched samples are seen to change, with the total P-oxide concentration remaining constant, after 10 cycles of ALD HfO2 at different temperatures. An (NH4)2 S treatment is seen to effectively remove native oxides and passivate the InP surfaces independent of substrate temperature studied (200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C) before and after the ALD process. Density functional theory modeling provides insight into the mechanism of the changes in the P-oxide chemical states.
H. Dong, Santosh KC, X. Qin, B. Brennan, S. McDonnell, D. Zhernokletov, C. Hinkle, J. Kim, K. Cho, and R. Wallace. "In situ study of the role of substrate temperature during atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on InP" Journal of Applied Physics (2013). doi:10.1063/1.4825218